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Latest Production Technology Research

Research No-1

Experimental Production of Sustainable Lightweight Foamed Concrete


Lightweight foamed concrete is recently acceptable for use in low strength capacity for building and civil construction purposes as a result of its peculiar features such as low thermal conductivity, low self weight and self compacting features hence its high workability. But it major demerits is its difficulty of high strength development when compared with normal concrete. The maximum strength achieved so far is less than 25MPa even at higher density of between 1500kg/m3 and 1800kg/m3. Strength development of foamed concrete depends largely on some factors which are the constituents of the base mix, the density of foam and the water cement ratio of the base mix. This paper studies the base mix parameters to produce a sustainable foamed concrete by substituting cement which is a source of carbon dioxide, a green house emission elements, with a cementitious material, fly ash within a range of 10% up to 50% and water cement ratio of 3.0 was used. Notraite PA-1 was used as foam agent and prefoamed method was adopted for the production of the foamed concrete. With a target density of 1600kg/m3, the compressive strength result of 10.5MPa reveals that a high strength sustainable foamed concrete structural panel could only be produced with 10% replacement of cement.



Research No-2


Organizational Structure and Choice of Technology: Analysis of Dual Relations


We study relations between technological and organizational aspects of production and, particularly, a role of high-ability agents. We construct a theoretical model in which n physical resources and one informational resource (such as talented individuals, high-ability managers) are used in production process. We show that both the production function and its conjugate function, which describes spending of the informational resource, are generated by a choice of technology from a technological menu. These two dual choice problems correspond to decisions made by two interest groups in the organization. The group interested in increasing the output is referred as ‘operatives’, and the group interested in diminishing the expenditures of the costly informational resource – as ‘minimizers’. We show that if technological progress is not accompanied by organizational changes, it leads to an incompatibility: the choices of the interest groups diverge. If the final decision is made by ‘minimizers’, it leads to a bottleneck role of the ‘non-talented’ labor. The exit from this trap can consist in continuous change of the social technology when the economy moves along the growth path. Two examples are provided, in which the model is applied to theoretical analysis of the learning-by-doing process in industrial firms and to dynamics of structural changes in a university occupying teaching and research activities.



Research No-3


Economic Evaluation of Smallholder Honey Production Technologies in Southwestern Nigeria


The study analyses the economic viabilities of the production technology alternatives adopted by smallholder honey producers in Southwestern Nigeria. Economic data were collected from officials of the Bee-Keepers’ Association of Nigeria in three purposively selected states in Southwestern Nigeria namely, Osun, Oyo and Ondo states. Average unit market price in the area, labour, transportation and packaging costs were collected and aggregated. Fixed costs, including the cost of bee hives, bee keeping kits, hand gloves, knife, cutlasses and sieves were also collected and used in analyzing costs and returns in honey production. Engineering economy analysis method was used to analyse the economic parameters. Six technology combinations/options with distinction in the hive and extraction technologies were identified and examined. The result shows that the technology option of Kenyan Topbar hive and Hydraulic Press extractor was the most viable at 7% MARR for a project life of ten years on investment bearing highest Present Worth (₦1,204,116.61), Future Worth (₦2,368,660.87), Annual Worth (₦171,437.03) compared to others. The study concluded that the use of Kenyan Topbar hive and Hydraulic Press technology alternative provide higher profitability.


Research No-4


Yield Gap Analysis in Adoption of Production Technology of Mango by the Farmers


The study was conducted on yield gap analysis in adoption of production technology of mango by the farmers at Tumkuru district. Ten villages were selected and out of which twenty farmers were selected from each for the study, ten belong to big and small farmers category. Total 200 sample size were selected, the data were collected through personal interview, Frontline demonstration, Off-campus and On-campus training programme. Observation was recorded that 20 per cent of yield gap between demonstration plot and actual farmers plot in mango. The total yield gap between potential yield and actual yield was 50%. Majority of the big farmers (63%) and small farmers (50%) were at medium level of adoption. Majority of the big farmers (more than 80%) fully adopted the production practices like plant population per hectare and pit size, whereas more than 90 per cent of small and big farmers have not adopted production technology such as spraying with mango special as micronutrient, application of Paclobutrazol for regular bearing in Alphanso mango variety and using improved mango harvester for drudgery reduction. Significantly adopted by the big farmers in production technologies such as recommended farm yard manure application (55%), recommended quantity (730:180:680 NPK g/plant/year) of inorganic fertilizer application (58%) and powdery mildew management (46%). More than 70 per cent of small farmers have not adopted technologies such as selection of grafted seedlings (71%) and fruit fly management (70%). But significantly not adopted by the small farmers in production technology viz., selection of improved variety (62%), selection of grafted seedlings (71%), recommended quantity (730:180:680 NPK g/plant/year) of inorganic fertilizer application (72%) and powdery mildew management (63%). High cost and inadequate availability of labour, erratic supply of electricity, lack of knowledge regarding pest and disease management, unawareness about nutrient management and high cost of inputs were the major production constraints perceived by the Mango growers. A great majority of big and small farmers opined that providing crop insurance, availability and supply of improved seedlings and inputs at right time, research efforts for development of cost effective simple technologies for pest and disease management and conducting demonstration cum training programmes were necessary to overcome the constraints.


Research No-5


Production Technology and Applications of Kojic Acid


Kojic acid is produced industrially by Aspergillus species in aerobic fermentation. The production of kojic acid is increasing because of its commercial value in industry. Kojic acid has various applications in several fields. It is widely used in cosmetic industry, medicine, food industry, agriculture and chemical industry. Nowadays, kojic acid plays a crucial role in cosmetic, especially skin care products because it can enhance the ability to prevent exposure to UV-radiation. Kojic acid continues to attract attention because of its economic potential in medical field as an anti-inflammatory drug and painkiller. In food industry, kojic acid is used in post harvest process as an anti-speck and an anti-browning agent for agricultural product. Due to various usage of this organic molecule, the demand of kojic acid has been increasing rapidly. Thus the studies to improve the kojic acid production are still extensively conducted.




New Research In Seedling Growth

Research 1

Effects of Climate Change Critical Factors on the Seedling Growth and Development of Maize (Zea mays L.)


Crop production is highly dependent on weather and change in climate has a major effect on crop yield, and thus on food supply. The effect of critical factors for climate change on growth and development of Zea mays was investigated. The treatments used were water, temperature, light intensity and soil (pH and nutrients). Growth factors such as height, leaf area, fresh and dry weights as well as dry and fresh weight ratio were determined. An average weight of 3kg of sandy, clay, loamy and laterite (red) soils in black planting bags of 21 by 25cm were used. Single (SN) and double (DN) netted cages were constructed to reduce the amount of light absorbed by plants. The control was without net (WN) while another set without net1 (WN1) was subjected to drought (watered only once). Three replicates for each soil treatment were used, and the experiment lasted for 8 Weeks. The results revealed that seeds sown in clay and laterite soils for WN1 germinated and died after three weeks because of the drought condition. Loamy soil for SN showed the highest mean height of 125cm±0.95. Also, loamy soil (WN) had the highest values of 214.49cm2±0.35 and 92.90g±3.21 for leaf area and dry weight, respectively. Soil pH values for sandy and loamy soils were within the acceptable pH range of 6.5 – 8.5. Plants sown in loamy soil for SN, DN and WN flowered within the period of the experiment. The highest value of 1.80g weight for inflorescence was recorded for WN with loamy soil. For loamy soil, there was significant difference between all soil treatments (nutrient, temperature and light intensity) at P<0.05. Since salts (ions) absorption is through solution in the soil, water may be considered as the most critical factor for the growth and development of plants.


Research 2



Germination and Seedling Growth of Zea mays L. as Affected by Different Concentrations of Na2so4 and Cacl2


Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Na2SO4 and CaClon seed germination and seedling growth of Zea mays.

Study Design: The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications.          

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in botany laboratory at Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria, between September, 2016 and January, 2017.

Methodology: Seeds of the test crop were germinated on Whatman No. 1 filter paper, each with 10 ml of CaCl2, Na2SO4, combinations of Na2SO4 and CaCl2 salt solutions in different Petri dishes. The germination percentages, root length, shoot length, fresh and dry weights of the seedlings were determined according to conventional method.

Results: The results showed that treatment with different salt solutions gave a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition in germination percentage and seedling growth. The germination and growth parameters decreased with increase in concentration of salt solutions. The test crop showed an increase in  root length and shoot length when subjected to combinations of Na2SO4 and CaCl2 compared to the NaSO4 regime.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that germination and seedling growth of salt treated Zea mayswas significantly inhibited by Na2SOsalinity stress. The inhibition of the germination and other growth parameters measured increased with increase in concentration of the salts.


Research 3


Germination and Seedling Growth in Primed Seeds of Sunflower under Water Stress


Successful establishment of plants largely depends on successful germination. This study investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (1 and 2mM) on germination percentage, germination rate, seed stamina index, hypocotyl and radical length, seedling fresh and dry weight of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under various water potentials (0, -2 and -4 bar) induced by PEG6000. The experimental design was a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications that performed at the laboratory of agriculture faculty of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. All parameters were negatively responded with water stress but using AsA alleviated the harmful effect of stress on the traits. The concentration of 2mM of AsA on measured traits was more effective compared with the other levels. Therefore, seed priming with AsA can be considered an appropriate tool for improving germination characteristics of sunflower under water stress.


Research 4



Effect of NaCl Induced Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Various Oryza sativa L. Genotypes


An experimental study aimed to investigate the effect of saline stress on rice (Oryza saliva L.) germination and early seedling characteristics, and genotypic differences in response to saline stress was conducted under lab conditions at College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Germination percentage (%), germination rate, emergence energy (%), germination speed, seedling height (cm), vigour index, seedling fresh and dry weights (mg) were recorded. Treatments consist of three different saline stress levels: 0 mM (Control), 100 mM and 200 mM, and eight rice genotypes; Basmati 385 and Super Basmati (Pakistani), Sakha 101, Sakha 102, Sakha 103, Sakha 104, Sakha 105 and Sakha 106 (Egyptian). It was conceived from results that saline stress significantly affected all the germination parameters in reverse order. (0 mM < 100 mM < 200 mM). Genotypic differences among rice cultivars germinating under saline stress were also recorded significant. Most valuable outcome of the study: interaction between various levels of saline stress and rice genotypes were highly significant. Sakha 101, Sakha 103, Sakha 106 and Basmati 385 have performed better even under 200 mM NaCl; they have higher level of saline stress tolerance potential and could be used in future breeding programs.


Research 5



Influence of the Size of Nursery Bag on the Growth and Development of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Seedlings


Cashew is one of the most important cash crops in Ghana where it is largely grown in the coastal, transitional and guinea savannah belt. Its cultivation is largely a small holder activity and serves as their main source of income. However, cashew orchards in these areas are expanding as a result of its economic potentials. Therefore cashew (Anacardium occidentale) seedling growth as influenced by the size of polythene bag for nursing was investigated using 4x6 inches, 4x7 inches, 5.5x6 inches, 5x7 inches, 5.5x7 inches and 7x10 inches polythene bag size categories in order to assess the possibility of using other polythene bag sizes smaller than what farmers use currently (7x10 inches) in relation to germination ability of the cashew seeds and seedling growth in order to minimize nursery production cost. The complete randomise design was used for two months of nursery trial with four replications. Data was collected on percentage germination, days to seedling emergence, number of leaves, plant height (cm), stem girth (mm), leaf area (cm2) and root length (cm) and were statistically analysed. The results showed a relationship between the parameters and the polythene bag sizes. The results showed that seedlings of polythene bag sizes 5.5x7 inches and 7x10 inches were superior to the sizes of polythene bag 4x6 inches, 4x7 inches, 5.5x6 inches and 5x7 inches seedlings both at emergence and seedling growth. The size of the nursery bag had a significant influence on seed germination, seedling vigour, number of leaves, plant height, stem girth, leaf area and root length at nursery growth. It was concluded that optimum performance was observed with bag size of 5.5 x 7 inches.






Latest Research In Anatomy

Research No-1

Anatomical, Proximate, Mineral and Vitamin Studies on Celosia argentea (Linn.)

Anatomical, Proximate, Vitamin and Mineral studies were carried out on the various parts (root, stem, leaf and petiole) of Celosia argentea L. using standard techniques. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. Anatomical result revealed similar features in their epidermis and cortex and differences in their vascular bundles arrangement. Proximate analysis revealed that protein and fat contents were highest in the leaf (13.11±0.01%) and (10.61±0.00%) respectively. Crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were highest in the stem (20.85±0.07%), (23.91±0.02%) and (31.11±0.00%) respectively. Vitamins A and C contents were highest in leaf (9.02±0.03 µg/g) and (56.00±3.66 mg/100g) respectively. Mineral analysis showed that Zinc, phosphorus and iron contents were highest in leaf (0.82 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), (39.77±5.06 mg/100 g), (8.19±1.02 mg/100 g) respectively. This work has indicated that Celosia argentea is highly nutritious and should be included in our diet. Apart from the leaf eaten by our people, other parts of the plant (root and stem) should also be used as food. Also the anatomical result is an additional aid to the taxonomic characterization of the plant.
Research No-2
Dynamic Anatomy of Aortic Root and Its Potential Role in TAVR Prostheses Further Development and Modification
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disorder. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the definitive therapy for patients with severe AS. In the last years transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been developed as an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement with promising results. Despite being less invasive than open-chest aortic valve replacement, good outcome and effectiveness of TAVR procedure, it remains associated with the potential for serious complications and short-time durability. Today there are two TAVR prostheses that have CE marks and FDA approved: Edwards Valves and CoreValve. Besides there are many other newly developed TAVR prostheses on the stage of clinical trials. However, no one of them had been developed on the base of data for dynamic anatomy of human aortic root because of the lack of appropriate imaging modality. Today, different two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques are used for aortic root examination. But no one of them has been accepted as a “gold standard” imaging modality for assessment of dynamic anatomy of aortic root. The existing imaging modalities such as transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, angiography, CT and MRI scans provide tangential cut plane view which did not reflect the real sizes of the annulus and other aortic root rings and structures. Obtained with these modalities images did not reflect the changes of the size and shapes of the anatomic structures of aortic root during the different phase of cardiac cycles either. Today there are strict needs for imaging modality which could assist in assessment of dynamic aortic root to push the TAVR prosthesis design and modification on new level.
Research No-3
Amending the Nigerian Anatomy Act in Line with Global Trends and Towards Meeting Nigeria’s Need for Sustainable Development: The Proposition
The Anatomy Act has been part of the Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria since 1933. Interestingly, the Act though being reviewed had never been majorly amended. This no doubt has affected the applicability, practicality and the relevance of this Act in line with current global trends in the field of Anatomy and Anatomical practices as well as how to use such an act to facilitate nation building and national development. This article presents the product of a critical analysis of the Nigerian Anatomy Act. The current Anatomy Act was critically and objectively evaluated based on the same acts in the selected developed countries using the British Anatomical Act- from which the original Nigerian Anatomy Act was developed- as a reference. For every statute-statement, the applicability in achieving sustainable development was objectively and critically considered. A qualitative table-tool was constructed to assess the current Anatomical Act. Criteria included the statute- statement, the objective and application, relevance, comments on areas of amendment and then the formulated proposition-statement. This article contains the proposition for amendment.
Research No-4
Evaluation of clinical relevance of problem-oriented teaching in undergraduate anatomy at the University of Pretoria
Problem oriented medical curricula claim to be based on the fact that the clinical sciences facilitate and encourage the understanding of basic sciences. The question was asked whether the correlation of gross anatomy in the Abdomen Block in the new Pretoria medical curriculum, with clinically relevant content (i.e. relevant physical examination, imaging anatomy, clinical procedures, clinical presentations and clinical case studies) facilitates the understanding of human anatomy and enhances the development of the clinical thinking fundamental to clinical practice. The clinical anatomy component of the Abdomen Block (11 weeks duration) in the third year was developed by using standardized patients, cadaver material, skeletons, X-rays, CT scans, MRIs and multimedia programs. Student perceptions were assessed by a Likert scale questionnaire. Most students thought that integrating the physical examination enhanced their understanding of the relevant anatomy (mean 3.55). A substantial number of students thought the clinical anatomy in the block laid a good foundation for imaging anatomy of the abdomen (mean 3.41). The majority of students thought the clinical anatomy laid a good basis for the understanding of surgical procedures relevant to the abdomen (mean 3.63). Students were mostly confident that clinical anatomy enhanced their understanding of clinical presentations (mean 3.68). Although slightly fewer, the majority reckoned that the clinical case studies gave them a better understanding of the relevant anatomy (mean 3.30). It seems evident that the integration of clinically relevant content facilitates and encourages the understanding of anatomy and thus aids in the development of clinical thinking.
Research No-5
The nature of project management: A reflection on The Anatomy of Major Projects by Morris and Hough

The purpose of this paper is to review the content and contributions of the book by Morris and Hough entitled The Anatomy of Major Projects: A Study of the Reality of Project Management. The paper explores the major findings and contributions in the book and by so doing, highlights opportunities for future research and links the findings to emerging areas of interest.

– The paper presents the main ideas in the book along with a number of important issues to project management theory and the management of large projects, including success, success factors, and the use of case studies to capture the actuality of project work.

– The paper demonstrates that Morris and Hough addressed many of the concerns related to major projects and uncovered the implications of researching the success of projects, offering new insights and understanding related to the dynamics of projects and the temporal nature of success (and failure).

Practical implications
– The primary implication is to demonstrate the value of revisiting the classic contributions in project management and re‐reading the findings and conclusions.

– The author is especially interested in the ideas presented in the book that relate to success and to major projects, as well as with researching the actuality of projects through case studies. Many of the findings and insights remain relevant and would inform today's debates. Previous research has given limited attention to the insights presented in this book published 25 years ago.


Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Shrimp Culture Pond Sediment



Sulfate reduction, a key process in aquatic sediments is carried out by a group of anaerobic microorganism called sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). High numbers of sulphate reducers in shrimp aquaculture pond sediment deteriorates the soil and water quality, causing physiological stress, thereby reducing the immunity of cultured animal. An attempt was made to evaluate the temporal and spatial distribution of SRB horizontally at different locations viz., water pumping area (WPA), sluice gate (SG) and pond center (PC), and vertically from sediment water interface to 10 cm depth in Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei culture ponds. Physico-chemical characteristics of water and soil were correlated with the number of SRB. Distribution of SRB was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the pond sediment nearer to SG (874 MPN/g), followed by PC (272 MPN/g) and WPA (99 MPN/g) and at sediment water interface (751 MPN/g) compared to 10 cm depth (114 MPN/g) of pond profile. Factors like dissolved oxygen and soil redox potential (oxidation to reduction scale), and organic carbon content in soil had a significant negative and positive correlation with SRB numbers. Phylogenetic relationship of SRB targeting SRB groups showed the presence of Desulfonema, Desulfosarcina, Desulfatibacilum, Desulfobotulus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfococcus, Desulfovibrio and Clostridiumgenera in shrimp culture pond sediments.


Keywords : Sulfate reducing bacteria; sediment-water interface; pond center; sluice gate; brackishwater and shrimp culture pond.


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Toxicity Activity-Guided Characterization of Toxic Constituents in Azadirachta indica Seed



Background: Azadiradita indica seed has been used in traditional system of medicine. It is known to be natural medicine with many benefits. Toxicological studies have reported that toxic effects may be related to the complex mixtures of active constituents and other chemicals which increase the risk of adverse reactions.

Objective: The purpose of the study was designed to isolate and characterize the toxic constituents with a view of recommending for clinical trials.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The seeds were collected, identified and extracted with conventional Soxhlet extraction technique. Chromatographic techniques were used for fractionation and isolation of the toxic constituents. A total of eighty- four (84) adult Albino rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into fourteen (14) groups containing 6 rats in each group. Each group I-VI received one of the 100, 500, or 1000 mg/kg of Methanol Extract (ME) or Hexane Extract (HE), respectively. Group VII was the control and received 0.5 ml/kg of the vehicle, 3% v/v Tween 80. Group VIII-XIV received 100 mg/kg of Pet-ether-ethylaceate fraction (PEF), Methanol fraction (MF), Methylene Chloride /Acetone fractions 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 (MAC-1, MAC-2, MAC-3),  Isolate 1 (TN-1), and Isolate 2 (TN-2), respectively. Extracts and fractions were administered orally once daily for 30days for animals in group I-XII. Groups XIII-XIV were treated for only 10 days. On days 10, 20, 30, 3 ml of blood was withdrawn from each rat by an ocular puncture for liver function test (ALT and AST). Body/ organ weights were equally used as a toxicity guide in the separation of toxic constituents.

Results: The ME and various fractions caused significant (P<0.05) increase in the activities of ALT and AST. The isolated compounds TN1 and TN2 also caused a significant effect on AST and ALT. The toxic effect of TN-2 was higher than that exhibited by TN-1. The methanol and fractions caused significant (P<0.05) dose related increase in the body weight of treated animals. TN-1 and TN-2 caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in the organ weight of the treated animals.

Conclusion: Although there was no evidence of lethality for acute toxicity of the extract, chronic oral administration of the extract and solvent fractions caused hepatotoxicity. Structure elucidation revealed TN-1 and TN-2 to be 6- deacetylnimbin and Nimbolide, respectively.


Keywords : Toxicity; activity; Azadirachta indica; structural characterization; nimbolide.


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Identification of Insect Pest Species of Maize, Their Infestation and Damage Levels at Ziway Dugda Woreda, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia



The survey was carried out in 2017 main cropping season to support farmers for correct insect pest identification. Three Kebeles, Hallo, Sambaro and Herara with five farmer’s fields randomly selected. Ten representative plants were taken from each field. Data on mean larval density per plant, percentage leaf infestation and damage levels were assessed. Results from mean larval density per plant showed that significant difference between insect species (R2= 0.96, Pr (>|Z|=0.013) where the highest 1.55-2.30 was recorded from C. partellus. There was a significant difference between C. partellus and M. trapezalisS. frugiperda and M. trapezalis in percentage leaf infestation (R2=0.75, Pr. (>|Z|=2e-16) where, the highest were recorded from C. partellus and S. frugiperda representing 50-90% and 40-90% respectively. From the above, C. partellus and S. frugiperda were at risk, as a result insecticide was recommended. M. trapezalis showed a lower infestation level so that hand picking was more economical than use of insecticide. Hence, registration and detail molecular identification will be needed as M. trapezals is the first record on maize crop in Ethiopia.



Keywords : Maize; insect pest species of maize; C. partellusS. frugiperdaM. trapezalis; Ziway Dugda; Ethiopia; Hallo; Sambaro; Herara.


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Bio-waste Transesterification Alternative for Biodiesel Production: A Combined Manipulation of Lipase Enzyme Action and Lignocellulosic Fermented Ethanol



Petroleum hydrocarbon oil contaminated soils were excavated from a gas station from Nicosia Cyprus, Turkey and subjected to fungal isolation/analysis. During the fungal essay, Aspergillus nigar, Penicellum notatum and Mucorales were isolated and identified. Aspergillus nigar was selected and cultivated for lipase enzyme production due to its role in lipase production. The produced lipase enzyme was immobilized and the number of lipases recovered after purification was 85.1%. The purified enzymes that were supported by physical adsorption which resulted in high (85%) yield showed high stability than free lipase, encouraged transesterification in this study. Pretreatment evaluation of groundnut powder showed high cellulose yield (82.3% and 87%) and high lignin removal of 75%, 88% respectively for lipase enzyme accessibility and ethanol production. Transesterification involving purified lipases and groundnut shell fermented ethanol yielded Methyl ester which represents the organic biodiesel with a C18 number showing a minimum level of lubricity for friction reduction between surfaces when a car is on motion and has specific gravity 0.95 ul, density 15.5°c, and calorific value of 43.2 MJ. Kg.


Keywords :Lipase; lignocelluloses; transesterification; biodiesel.


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Assessment of Bacterial Deteriogens of Selected Lubricating Oils Used in Industrial Generators



The study investigates microbial deteriogens of lubricating oils used on industrial generators. Total heterotrophic bacterial and total fungal counts were determined using the spread plate method. Bacterial isolates were screened for the utilization of lubricating oil and the rate of biodeterioration was determined by monitoring the optical density and pH of medium containing specific bacterial isolates from lubricating oil. Physico-chemical characteristics of lubricating oil were determined following standard procedures and petroleum hydrocarbon profile was determined using Gas Chromatography. Bacterial counts of used and unused samples ranged from 5.55 log cfu/ml to 7.83 log cfu/ml and from 4.64 log cfu/ml to 4.86 log cfu/ml respectively while fungal counts ranged from 6.60 log cfu/ml to 8.04 log cfu/ml and from 0 log cfu/ml to 7.32 log cfu/ml respectively. Bacterial isolates identified in the study include; Micrococcus sp, Citrobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus sp., Shigella sp., while the fungal genera isolated include;  Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cryptosporium, Candida and Saccharomyces species. Screen test for the utilization of used and unused oil samples by bacterial isolates showed that all isolates utilized the lubricating oil. Results further revealed that there was a consistent and significant (P < 0.05) increase in optical density and a fluctuation in pH during deterioration monitoring. Petroleum hydrocarbon profile analysis after 28 days of study revealed lower concentrations of hydrocarbon components in the used oil samples compared to the unused samples, this confirm the fact that isolated organisms may have utilized the lubricating oil as a source of carbon and energy thereby affecting its quality and performance.



Keywords :Biodeteriogens; optical density; biodeterioration.


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Massive Hematemesis from Gastric Dieulafoy's Lesion, Surgery as a Curative Option When There is Lack of Access to Expertise



Dieulafoy’s lesion is an acute GI (gastrointestinal) bleeding disorder, a rare but life-threatening condition due to recurrent bleeding. The affected arteriole can protrude through a small defect in the mucosa, becomes susceptible to the mechanical trauma even of a minor level and gradually erodes into the lumen to cause severe acute GI bleeding.

 A 40-year-old married woman was admitted with a history of massive hematemesis for 17 days. A series of 3 upper GI endoscopies were done, and the patient was diagnosed with Dieulafoy’s lesion. Local epinephrine via EGD failed to stop hematemesis following which surgical consultation was duly referred. Exploratory laparotomy was done that showed a lesion near the lesser curvature. The lesion was ligated with under-run suturing.

Surgical intervention was selected on the basis of lesion's presentation and clinical aspects of the patient.  Surgical intervention remains a better choice in case of massive hematemesis in a setting where the access to the availability of expertise is low.


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8. SCIENCEDOMAIN international is now member of PORTICO for Permanent Digital Archiving of SDI journals

9. US National Library of Medicine (NLM) Catalog included SCIENCEDOMAIN international journals please see here:

As a result of these achievements, many scientists from world’s famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc. published their scientific works with SCIENCEDOMAIN international journals. All these examples clearly indicates their stand against the working principle of some fake publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.

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Science Domain journals are determined to promote integrity in research publication. ScienceDomain journals follow the guidelines, given by COPE for any publication disputes (

Publication charge of Science Domain international journals is extremely low compared to other open access publishers. It is commendable that even at such low cost they are providing transparent OPEN Peer review and post-publication peer review, DOI, permanent digital Archiving, wide indexing, etc.

Science Domain journals follow the guidelines regarding ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’, established by the COPE, the DOAJ, the OASPA. Science Domain journals additionally publicly publish a ‘self-compliance report’ for public and scholarly scrutiny (

Since inception, this publisher is making constant efforts to promote integrity and transparency. It is completely baseless libel that SCIENCE DOMAIN international is a predatory publisher, as no other publisher put these much efforts to adhere to best publishing practices.

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